Commonly used Korean terms in Korean novels.
Food & Drink
Seolleongtang(설렁탕): Ox bone soup. Ox bones are boiled in water for several hours to create the stock, and then the stock is used to make the soup. Commonly eaten with rice.
Gukbap(국밥): Literally means 'soup-rice'. It's a category of food where one eats rice along with hot soup. Good for warming up the body.
Seonji Gukbap(선지국밥): Blood pudding soup & rice. As the name implies, it's a form of 'Gukbap' mentioned above. Blood pudding is just coagulated blood.
Haejang-guk(해장국): "Hangover soup". It's what Korean people have in the morning after they drink to get relieve hangover. 'Gukbap' is often used as haejang-guk as well.
Makgeoli(막걸리): Rice wine.
Pajeon(파전): A Korean-style pancake (“jeon”) whose main ingredient is scallions (“pa”). Pajeon and Makgeoli are said to be the perfect food for a rainy day.
Chimaek(치맥): Chicken & Beer. Maekju is beer, hence the word. Chicol(치콜) is used to replace beer with coke.
Soju(소주): A Korean distilled alcoholic drink.
Pojang macha(포장마차): Street stall restaurant. Sometimes shortened to Pocha(포차)
Noraebang(노래방): The Korean version of karaoke
PC-bang(PC방): PC cafe. The reason why Korea has many top esports players.
Hagwon(학원): Usually translated to 'Academy' or 'Cram school'. It's a private institute for learning outside of school hours.
Hongdae(홍대): Hongik university region. It's a popular place among college students and for ‘busking’ (street music performance)
Hyehwa(혜화)/Daehak-ro(대학로): Refers to the same place. It houses a lot of small theaters.
Chungmuro(충무로): This place was once known as the Mecca of Films in Korea due to the presence of many movie production companies and large movie theaters. That is no longer the case, but the word is still used as the 'Mecca of Films'. e.g. You would go to 'chungmuro' to scout an actor.
Itaewon(이태원):This place is known for the presence of a lot of foreigners
Gangnam(강남): Famous for Psy's "Gangnam Style" song. Real estate is really expensive here.
Yongsan(용산): Known for having a lot of electronics stores.
Pangyo(판교): The mecca of software developers and IT engineers in Korea.
Hyung(형): Used by a younger male to refer to an older male (elder brother). Hyung-nim is used to show respect
Oppa(오빠): Used by a younger female to refer to an older male (elder brother).
Noona(누나): Used by a younger male to refer to an older female (elder sister). Noo-nim is used to show respect
Unni(언니): Used by a younger female to refer to an older female (elder sister).
The above four call names can all be used in the context of relatives as well as in the context of non relatives. I don't remember what younger females use to refer to their elders with respect. but Orabeoni(오라버니) is sometimes used by younger females to refer to an older male with 'respect'... but is rarely used.
The word 'hyung-nim' can also be used in the context of the mafia/yakuza to refer to their 'boss'.
Ahjumma(아줌마): Used to refer to middle-aged women. Younger women will find this term offensive (They want to stay young...)
Ahjumeoni(아주머니): A more respectful form of 'ahjumma'.
Ahjussi(아저씨): Used to refer to middle-aged men. Like above, younger men will find this term offensive (but not probably as much as ahjumma)
Ahjubeoni(아주버니): A more respectful form of 'ahjussi'. Rarely used.
seonsaeng-nim(선생님): Usually used as 'teacher', but can also be used to call someone else with respect.
sajang-nim(사장님): literally means 'president', but can also be used to call someone with respect (male).
samo-nim(사모님): Literally means 'president's wife', but can also be used to call someone with respect (female).
seonbae(선배): Senior. Used to refer to someone who entered the company/school/industry earlier
hoobae(후배): Junior. Used to refer to someone who entered the company/school/industry later.